Taariikhda Saldanada Maakhir ee Puntland iyo Beenta Isaqland

MAANTA IYO XAALADA WAQOOYIGA SOOMAALIYA

Maamulka Isaqland way ku guul dareysteen sanaadiiqdii ay rabeen iney ku khalkhal geliyaan nabada dhulka Maakhir iyo Dhulbahantaha ee Puntland. Maamulka Isaqland iyo dabadhilifyada tirada yar ee macaanjecesha ah ee u adeegaa waa iney ogaadaan in aaney wax ka qaadin karin dadka Reer Maakhir iyo Dhulbahantaha dega Waqooyiga oo diiday gunnimada hoos taga Isaqland oo doortay gobanamida la noolashaha reer tolkooda Puntland, wax kasta ah isku qabeene.

Isku Duubni Baa Dadkayagow


Nabad loo wada noolaado oo aan la isa sheegan ayaa walaaltinimada iyo deris wanaagu ku jiraan. Odayaasha Warsangeli iyo Dhulbahante ha iska jireen biidhiqaatayaasha tirada yar ee magaca la wadaaga oo shilimaadka Isaqland ka soo qaadanaya si ay u khayaameeyaan iyagoo isla simaya iney la mid yihiin Dhulbahantaha iyo Warsangeliga Puntland ka socda.

Puntland waa dalkeenii iyo dadkeenii oo doorasho ayeynu kaga mid noqonay. Puntland waa dalkeenii uu khasab Warsangeli iyo Dhulbahante kuma sheeganayaan halka Isaqland rabaan in ay dadka sanka ka geliyaan goosashadooda. Puntland dad inala dhashay baynu wada sameysanay oo ina khasbi maayaan, markaynu doono ayeynu aayaheena ka tashan karnaa haddii wax isbedelaan. Laakiin waa in aan ogaanaa kuwa jecel in Dhulbahante iyo Warsanageli looga dhigo Puntland dab gubaya si walaalehoodii ay garabsan lahaayeen loogu diro. Marka dugsiga walaalkood laga soo saaro ayey iyagoo baylaha ah gees keligood ugu soo bixi doonaan Isaqland. Isaqland waa siday rabaane markaa ayey caada-qaatayaashooda iyagoo dabada ka wada waxay doonaan sameyn doonaan, sida Laas Caanood ka taagan. Waa in aan ogaanaa dadkaa deriskeena ah ee qabyaalada ISAQLAND ku sameystay ee magaca "SOMALILAND" ku gabanayaa in ay midnimada walaaltinimo ee Dhulbahante iyo Warsangeli ay Puntland kaga mid noqdeen in goolkoodu yahay iney dumiyaan. Isaqland waa qabiil khasab Dhulbahante iyo Warsangeli ku sheeganaya oo raba, si uu u duleysto, in ay sandule iyo xoog ku hoos yimaadaan.

Saluuga iyo guuxa hoose oo maamulka Puntland ay qaar dadka reer Puntland , reer Maakhir iyo Dhulbahante ka tirsanayaan ma aha iney ku kalifto iney mid qabyaalad iyo naceyb la sarkhaasan ay hoos galaan. Gaar ahaan Dhulbahante iyo Warsangeli marna yey gunnimo, addoonsi, duleyn iyo iney is hoos geliyaan Isaqland oo cawaaqib xumo wiil-wiil ka dhaxlo ku kalifin hadday ka cadhoodaan maamulka Puntland. Puntland ka mid noqoshadeedu xidhiidh lama le maamulka Puntland ee xilligaa jooga. Maamulka iyo dadka horboodayaa waa yimaadaan oo tagaan laakiin Puntland weligeed waa jireysaa. Haddii aanu maanta nin Reer Laas Caanood ahi madaxweyne ka aheyn Puntland, berito ayuu ka noqon karaa. Markaa ka mid noqoshada Puntland waa in aan lagu khaldin qalooca ka iman kara shakhsiyaadka maamulka markaa jira, qofkuu doono madax ha u ahaadee. Isaqland ma aha iney marna soo dhexgalaan dadka wada dhashay  ee Puntland sida aaney Isaqland marna u ogoleyn in Puntland ay soo dhexgasho markay dhexdooda iska qabtaan.

TAARIIKHDA SALDANADA MAAKHIR EE PUNTLAND IYO HESHIISKAY LA GALEEN BOQORTOOYADA INGIRIISKA

Lix qabiil oo Waqooyiga degan ayaa la kala galay Ingiriiska lix heshiis [xagga hoose ayaa lixda heshiis ku qoran yihiin]. Qabiilka Dhulbahante iyagu wax heshiis ah lama gelin Ingiriiska oo waxay ku hoos yimaadeen Ingiriiska heshiiskii jeexida xudduuda Italian Somaliland iyo British Somaliand. Qabiil Isaaq la yidhaahdo oo wada socda oo heshiis la galay Ingiriiska ma jirin. Ma jirin wax la yidhaahdo "Somaliland" dad metelaya oo wada socda oo heshiis la wada galay Ingiriiska. Ereyga "Somaliland" wuxu ahaa magac ay dawlada Ingiriisku maamulka qabaa'ilka ay heshiiska la gashay iyo Dhulbahante ay ula baxday dhulkii ay deganaayeen iyadoo magacaa markii u horeeyey, maadaama "Dhul Soomaaliyeed" uu u taagan yahay, loo isticmaalay Koonfurta iyo magaalooyinka Baraawe.

Qabaa'ilka Waqooyigu xorriyada kuma qaadan in ay ka mid noqdaan dal xor ah oo "Somaliland" la yidhaahdo. Markii xorriyada Waqooyiga la siinayey dawlada Ingiriisku waxay siyaasiyiintii Shirkii Dastuurka ee May 1960 u sheegtay in aaney heshiis la gelin wax la yidhaahdo "Somaliland" oo siyaasiyiin metelaan sidaa darteed aaney xorriyad sharciyan sidaa ku bixin karin. Dawlada Ingiriisku waxay siyaasiyiintaa ka dalbadeen iney dib ugu noqdaan qabaa'ilka heshiiska lala galay iyo Dhulbahante, oo kaga mid noqday maamulkii Ingiriisiga ka dib markii Talyaaniga iyo dalwada Ingiriisugu kala saxiixanayeen heshiiskooda xadka, oo weydiiyaan waxa ay rabaan.

Siyaasiyiintaa xornimo ayaanu rabnaa ku yidhi Ingiriiska ma laheyn awood ay ku joojiyaan ama baxaan heshiisyadii qabaa'ilka lala galay, maadaama aaney iyagu saxiixin. Wasiirkii Isticmaarku wuxu amray kuwii metelayey "Somaliland' in ay soo caddeeyaan waxa qabaa'ilku rabaan si heshiiskaasi meesha uga baxo. Markii siyaasiyaantii dib loo soo celiyey iyadoo taa shardi lagaga dhigayo ayaa Odayaashii heystay awooda saxiixu caddeeyeen in aaney rabin Xornimo iyo dawlada "Somaliland" la yidhaahdo oo keliya laakiin ay rabaan xornmimo iyo Dawlada Soomaaliyeed oo mideysan(Independence and Union With Somalia).

Maamulka Isaqland ee Hargeisa marin habaabinta uu wado oo ah in xorrnimada lagu helay wax la yidhaadho "Somaliland" oo xor u noqatay iney keligeed istaagto oo markaa "Italian Somaliland" la midowday waa mid ka hor imaneysa xaqiiqada sharciga ah ee maanta caalamka meel kasta taala oo ah in wax "Somaliand" la yidhaadho aaney weligeed si cad xorriyad uga qaadan Ingiriiska iney noqoto dal madaxbanaan. Arrinta beenta ah ee Isaqland sheego oo ah waa nala aqoonsaday iyada adduunku waa la yaabaa beenta iyo indha-adayga ay aqoonsiga ku raadsanayaan maadaama ay meel kasta yaaliin caddeymaha muujininaya sidii xornimada loo siiyey qabaa'ilkii deganaa Waqooyiga iyo in aaney jirin cid weligood aqoonsatay; tahniyadihii meelaha qaar ay u soo direen qab'aailkaa Soomaaliyeed ee xorriyadoodii ku helay iney la midoobaan "Italian Somaliland" ayey ka dhigaan mid lagu aqoonsaday. Ma oga in aaney adduunka khaldin karin oo ay u fiican tahay iney xaqiiqda sheegaan hadday wax aan soconeyn xitaa raadsanyaan.

Si sharciyan loo helo magac ka duwan "British Somaliland" ayaa markay odayaashi ogoladeen "Xorriyad iyo Midnimo Soomaaliyeed" aya dawlada Ingiriisku si taxdir le u isticmaashay ereyga "Somaliland", oo "British" laga reebay, si ay fuliso wixii ay tahay in ay kaga baxdo dhulkaa iyo sharciga dhawrka cisho oo "Italian Somaliand" xornimada qaadaneyso ay sii hoos geliyaan. Marna, xitaa shantaa cisho, magacaa looma adeegsan oo uma taagneyn wadan madaxbaanaan. Dal la yidhaadho "Somaliland" oo xornimo ku helay shuruud la'aan sida aanu weligii u jirin ayey maantana tahay in aan la keeni karin wax "Somaliland" la yidhaahdo oo wada socda oo "Koonfur" ama "Italian Somaliland" la hadlaya.

Waxa jiray qabaa'il "British Somaliland" hoos imanayey oo madaxbaanin ku helay in ay la midoobaya "Italian Somaliland". Shardiga xorriyada lagu helay oo ah midnimada Soomaaliyeed xaq uma le qabiilka Isaaqa keligii intuu dib ugu noqdo 1960 in uu markaa meel kasta ka sheego tan xornimada ookeliya. Xorriyada iyo midowga siday markaa u wada socdeen ayey u wada soconayaan ama qabiil kastii aayihiisu ka tashanayaa. Sidaa darteed Dawlada Federaaligu waa in aaney meesha marna keenin wax aan jirin xitaa 1960 oo dawlada Ingiriisku diiday oo ah in Isaqland metelaan qabaa'ilkii British Somaliland oo dhan, waa haddii Dawlada Federaalku aaney rabin in Soomaali sii kala go'do oo qabiil kastii dawlad noqdo.

Suldan Mohamud Ali Shire Sultan of Warsangeli Daarood Darod Somalia

Sultan Mohamud Sultan Ali-Shire Sultan Muhammad(Suldaan Maxamuud Suldaan Cali-Shire Suldaan Maxamed), Sultan of Warsangeli

Warsangeli Heshiiska uu la galay Boqortooyada Ingiriisku waa ka duwan yahay heshiisyada kale oo dhan marka la eego xagga awooda saxiixa, madaxbanaanida loo ogolaa, maamulkood gaarka ah iyo qodoba kale u ku jira heshiisyada qabaa'ilka kale oo laga saaray ama waxa laga bedelay markii Warsangeli lala gelayey.

Dhulbahante heshiis lama gelin Ingiriiska; Odayaasha Ardaaga Warsangeli iyaguna wax kasta oo loo keenay qalinka kuma ay duugine waxay si adag u dalbadeen in qodobada Ingiriisku la yimi ee qolooyinka kale aqbaleen in qaar gebi ahaan laga saaro oo aanay aqbaleyn, qaarna wax laga bedelo iyo in iyagu qaar ku soo darsadaan.

Heshiiska Warsangeli waa kan keliya oo uu saxiixay Suldaan Guud oo loo aqoonsan yahay hogaanka qabiilkiisa iyo maamulka dhulkiisa.

Heshiisyada kale odayaasha saxiixayaa ma le awoodaa, loomana aqoonsan markay wax saxiixayeen. Aqoonsiga la siiyey Suldaanka iyo Maamulkii Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsangeli si loo dhawro nidaamkoodii ismaamulka ee casriga ahaa waxa Ingiriiska khasab ku noqotay inuu si gaara ula galo wada hadal Odayaasha Warsangeli. Taasi waxay keentay in heshiiska Warsangeli laga ilaaliya waxkasta oo xornimadooda, maamulkooda, ku xadgudubka dhulkooda iyo iska soo gelida badooda laga ilaaliyo. Waa laga wada saaray heshiiska Warsangeliga qodobada heshiisyada qabaa'ilka kale ku jira ee wax u dhimi kara arrimahaa.

Heshiiska  Warsangeli waxa laga saaray odhaahda “the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of order …… ”  oo ah in xejintta xornimada iyo ilaalinta nidaamka iyo kala dambeynta dhulka gacanta loo geliyo Dawlada Ingriiska. Qabaa'ilka Waqooyiga ee heshiisyada saxiixay way ogalaadeen taa laakiin Odayaasha Ardaaga Warsangeli waa diideen waana laga saaray heshiiskooda. Warsangali waxaa loogu bedelay, hadday baahiyi timaado, in Warsangeli gacan siin doonaan hawlaha gaarka ee sarkaalkaa loo diro iyagaa ka wada shaqeynaya iyaga iyo Warsnageligu arrimaha caddaalada,  horumarinta kheyraadka dalka, ganacsiga, iyo arrimaha la xidhiidha nidaamka, dawlad wanaaga iyo horumarinta guud ee ilabxnimda caalamka. Faahfaahintaa dheer oo tilmaamay sida dawlada Ingiriisku u aragtay in ay Warsangeli yihiin maamul adduunka wax ku soo kordhin kara oo ay aqoonsatay nidaamka iyo horumarka Saldanada Maakhir gaartay ayey garteen iney heshiiskooda sidaa u dhigaan oo deegaanka maakhir ka dhigaan "country" halka heshiisyada kale laga dhigay qabiil wax  lala saxiixda oo laga xayuubiyey xornimadoodii oo Boqortooyada Ingiriisku ilaalineyso.

Maadaama awood xagga badda ah oo weyn Warsangeligu ay lahaayeen Ingiriisku wuxuu kaloo ka saaray odhaahda "All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade at all ports and places within …“ oo ah in maraakiibta wadata calanka Ingiirsku la siiyo ogalaasha furan oo ah iney siday doonaan uga ganacsan karaan xeebaha iyo goobaha qabiilka. Maadaama nidaam iyo kala dambeyn ay leedahay Saldanada Maakhir waxay diideen in ay Boqortooyada Ingiriiska uu ogalaadaan iney maraakiibtoodu xeebahooda iska soo galaan oo dhulkooda ka ganacsadaan iyagoo aan ogolaasha Odayaasha Ardaaga Warsangeli ka heysan. Laakiin qabaa'ilka kale dhulkooda iyo xeebahooda sidii la doonaa laga yeelayey.

Waxay kaloo Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsangeli xilligaa dalbadeen in aan heshiiskoodu noqon mid furan oo suldaanada isbedelayaa dhaxlaan. Waxay diideen odhaahda qabaa'ilka kale oo dhan heshiisyadooda la raaciyey oo ah in iyaga iyo kuwa ay sii dhalaan oo dhulka dhaxli doonaa ay khasab ku tahay iney ilaaliyaan heshiiskaa waa ” their heirs and successors.”

Waxa la yaab le xeel-dheerida iyo garashada fog ee Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsangeli ee xilligaa. Maanta looyarada joogaa sida ay
Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsangeli heshiiskoodu ugu adkeysteen inuu ka duwanaado qabaa'ilka kale iyo in aan ismaamulkooda la taaban karin oo xornimadooda wax loo dhimin, in sidii dal "Country" loola galo,  in aan doonyaha iyo maraakiibta Ingiriisku iska soo geli karin dhulkooda, in aan dadka hoos yimaada Boqortooyada Ingiriiksu iska dhex mari karin iyo inaan heshiisku noqon mid furan oo Sultaan uu Sultaan ka dhaxlo.

Heshiiskaa Odayaasha Ardaaga Warsangeli ka shaqeeyeen xilligaa maanta ma sameyn karaan kuwa jooga oo xirfadaa iyo xeel dheeridaa la yaab kale oo ay xitaa ku darsadeen awooda ah in haddii Suldaan cusubi yimaado oo Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsangeli iyo Suldaanku isla gartaan in ay ka baxaan ay jebin karaan halka Soomaalida kale ay khasab ku tahay iney weligood Boqortooyada Ingiriiska ku hoos jiraan.

----------------------ENGLISH VERSION---------------------------------

British Colonial Treaties with Somali Clans in the North British Treaty with Somaliland Tribes

The British Government have signed protection treaties with six Somaliland tribes: Gadabursi, Eesa, Warsangeli, Habr Gerhajis, Habr Toljaala and Habr-Awal. All articles in the Agreements and the Supplementary Agreements signed with the Somaliland tribes are the same except the Warsangali one.

The Warsangeli treaty is singed by Garad[or traditional leader] fully representing his tribe. All other Somaliland tribes treaties with the British Government are singed by different elders not fully representing the whole tribe.  Some sigficant articles giving full power to Britain over the tribe are removed from Warsangeli treaty.

–The Warsangali treaty doesn’t contain the preamble, “the maintenance of our independence , the preservation of order …… ”, that precedes every treaty which puts the independence and maintenance of the order of the tribe's territory in the hands of British Government.

The Warsangali treaty is added an extra article[LOOK ARTICLE VI OF THE WARSANGALI TREATY BELOW] indicating that Warsnagali will assist the British officers and follow their advice for ” .. duties as my be assigned to them, and further act upon their advice in matters
relating to the administration of justice, the development of the resources of the country, the interests of commerce, or in any other matter in relation to peace, order, and good government, and the general progress of civilization. “


–No tribal area is referred as “COUNTRY” except theWarsangali territory.

ARTICLES I, II and III are removed from the Warsangali Treaty.
ARTICLE III in the Warsnagali Treaty is similar to ARTICLE II in HABR GERHAJIS and Habr
Toljaala Treaty but it is removed the statement  "All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade at all ports and places within …"

The conclusion of every agreement, except the WARSANGALI TREATY, indicates that the treaty will be abided by the elders currently signing and "their heirs and successors"


HERE IS THE WARSANGELI TREATY WITH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT:

TREATIES, &c., between the Warsangalis (British Protection; Slave Trade; Wrecks: &c.). - January 27, 1886


The British Government and the Elders of the Warsangali tribe who have signed this Agreement being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between them;

The British Government have named and appointed Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, C.S.I., Political Agent and Consul for the Somali Coast, to conclude a Treaty for this purpose.
The said Major F. M. Hunter, C.S.I., Political Agent and Consul for the Somali Coast, and the said Elders of the Warsangali, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:-

ART. I. The British government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned Elders of the Warsangali, undertakes to extend to them and to the territories under their authorities and jurisdiction the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the
Queen-Empress.

II. The said Elders of the Warsangali agree and promise to refrain from entering into any correspondence, Agreement, or Treaty with any foreign nation or Power, except with the knowledge and sanction of Her Majesty's Government.

III. The Warsnagali are bound to render assistance to any vessel, whether British or belonging to any other nation, that may be wrecked on the shores under their jurisdiction and control , and to protect the crew, passengers, and cargo of such vessels, giving speedy intimation to the Resident at Aden of the
circumstances; for which act of friendship and good-will a suitable reward will be given by the British Government.

IV. The Traffic in slaves throughout the territories of the Warsangali shall cease for ever, and the Commander of any of Her Majesty's vessels, or any other British officer duly authorized, shall have the power of requiring the surrender of any slave, and of supporting the demand by force of arms by land and sea.

V. The British Government shall have the power to appoint an Agent or Agents to reside in the territories of the Warsangali, and every such Agent shall be treated with respect and consideration, and be entitled to have for this protection such guard as the British Government deem sufficient.


VI. The Warsangali hereby engage to assist all British officers in the execution of such duties as may be assigned to them, and further to act upon their advice in matters relating to the administration of justice, the development of the resources of the country, the interests of commerce, or in any other matter in
relation to peace, order, and good government, and the general progress of civilization.


VII. This Treaty to come into operation from the 27th day of January, 1886, on which date it was signed at

Bunder Gori by the Undermentioned.

F. M. Hunter

Witness:

J. H. Raintier, Commander, R. N.

Muhammad Mahmud Ali, Gerad of all the Warsangali.

Jama Mahmud, Reer Garaad
Muhammad Ibrahim, Reer Garaad
Omar Ahmed, Reer Garaad
Mahmud Abdullah, Reer Garaad
Yusuf Mahmud, Reer Garaad

Nur Abdullah, Reer Faatax
Isa Adan, Reer Faatax
Muhammad Ali Shirwa, Reer Faatax
Abdy Nur, Reer Faatax

Muhammad Abdi Nalaya, Ogeyslabe
Mahmud Sagully, Ogeyslabe
Abdullah Sagully, Ogeyslabe
Muhammad Abdulah, Ogeyslabe

Taariikhda iyo Maamulka Maakhir ee Puntland

Waar Maad Naga Tagtaan Nama Taqaaniine

Sawirkan hoose waa Sultan Mohamoud Sultan Ali-Shire, Sultan of Warsangeli, oo Queen Elizabeth II ay bilad gudoonsiineyso sannadkii 1954.

SultanandQueenAden3

Waa suldaanka keliya oo Soomaaliyeed oo dadkiisa iyo deegaankiisu noqdeen Soomaalida ugu maamulka iyo kala dambeynta wanaagsan oo gaadhay iney hab nabadeed kula noolaadaan qaba'iilkii la deganaa. Taasina waxay keentay, oo Soomaali oo dhami u qirtaa, in dadkii maamulada dawladihii Soomaalida soo galay oo ka soo jeeday Warsangeli inay ka qabyaalad yaraayeen, ka daacad sanaayeen, ka dhib yareeyeen badankoodu marka la barbardhigo Soomaalida. Taasina waxay keentay in Soomaalidu markay is dilayeen, Waqooyi ilaa Koonfur, Warsangeligu noqdeen qabiilka keliya oo aan Soomali godob u sheegan oo nabad gala, inkastoo marmar waxmagarato keeneen iney taa jebiyaan. 

Alfurqan School Badhan, Sanaag, Puntland, Somalia

 

Maamulka Isaqland ha ogaadeen ind ardayda, carruurta, ciroolaha iyo cid kastii ka hor iman doonto.

Xillayadii Ingiriisku u talinayey Soomaalida, isagoo xitaa mudo dhamaan dhulka Soomaalidu degto gacanta ku wada hayey, wuxu Soomaalida ku soo rogey sharci loo yaqaaney "Collective Punishment" oo ah haddii dembi deegaan lagu galo oo aan guurtideedu waxba ka qaban waxay dhamaantood noqonayaan dembiilaayaal. Si taa loo fuliyo qabiilka soo gudbin waaya dembiilihii dhibta geystey waxa loo diri jiray ciidan. Ciidankaasi geeloodana waa ka soo qaadi jirey, oo haddan odayaashooda soo xidhxidhi jiray. Waxa geela iyo odayaasha loo sii deyn jiray markay dembiilaha soo gacan geliyaan. Maamulka Ingiriisku wuxuu u tilmaami jiray guurtidaa iyo dadkaa sidaa u dhaqmaya oo ka adkaan waayey nabadeynta dadkooda iyo deegaankooda iney ku deydaan oo wax ka bartaan siday u shaqeyso Saltanada Warsageli, halkaas oo aan Ingiriiska kharaj ciidan iyo ilaalin nabadeed kaga bixi jirin.

Sultan Maxamuud Sultan Cali-Shire sawirkiisani wuxuu ku soo baxay  baalka hore ee dibeda(cover pageka) cadadkii warsidihii August 1960 ee "History Today" ee Ingiriiska ka soo baxay. Doorashada sawirkiisa waxa sabab u ahayd Saltanaduu hogaaminayey oo ahayd mid maamul wanaageeda iyo kala dambeynteeda, marka la barbardhigo dhulkii Soomaalida ee Ingiriiska toos u hoos imanayey, aan la gaadhi jirin. Hab barlamaani wadatashi ku saleysan oo loo yaqaaney "Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsangeli" oo ay xubno ka ahaayeen ruug caddaayada beeshu, isagoo Suldaanku gudoominayo, ayaa ka talin jiray Maakhir.

SultanMohamudAliShire-1960-August History Today

Heshiiska Warsangeli iyo Ingiriis dhex maray wuxuu ku yimi wada hadal gaar ah. Halka qabaa'ilka kale iyaga la qabsaday oo qodobada heshiisyadooda lagu daray in loo talinayo,  heshiiska Warsangeli lala galay waa laga soo saaray qodobka u talinta, waa laga saaray qodobadii la xidhiidhay socodka maraakiibta wata calamada Ingiriiska oo xeebaha iska soo geli kara iyo qodoba kale oo Warsangeli madaxbanaanidooda wax u dhimi kara. Maamulka Maakhir waxa loo daayey Ardaaga Saltanada Warsangeli maadaama ay ahayd nidaamka keliya ee Waqooyi ka jiray oo ku saleysnaa hab baarlamaan ah loo yaqaanay "Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsangeli" oo wixii Maakhir ku yimaada qaadaa dhigi jiray, Suldaan gudoon adag uu gudoomin jiray, gaadh-haye nabada iyo dhulka beesha ilaalin jiray uu fulin jirey go'aanka ardaaga ka soo baxa, kala dambeyn iyo xasiloon joogta ah keeni jirtay, xidhiidh dibadeed iyo mid gude oo tixgelin ku saleysan dejin jirtay, iyo ganacsi xor ah. Sababtaas ayey ahayd in Soomaali badani halkay ku faani jireen "reer hebel baanu is dilin jiray oo geel ka dhici jirnay" ay Warsangeligu, iyagoo Soomali badani u qireyso, ay ku faanaan xidhiidh wanaag iyo istixgelin deriskooda ay kula nool yihiin. Geel baanu reer hebel ka dhici jirney iyo intaa oo qarni ayaan reer hebel dagaal kula jirnay kuma jirto taariikhdooda.

Warsangeli taariikhdooda nabadeed, qabyaalad yaraantooda iyo kula noolashaha walaaltinimo ee dhextaalay iyaga iyo qabaa'ilka Isaaqa iyo Hartiga kale ee la dega waxa maanta daacuun ku ah maamulka Isaqland oo iska dhigaya inuu Reer Maakhir cagtooda hoostooda gelin karo laakiin ilawsan in ay godob gelayaan hadday go'aansadaan iney dadkaa nabad jecel gardareystaan oo ku kalifaan iney qorigooda, yar iyo weyn, wada qaataan.

Taariikhdu markay ahayd 1848 ayaa Reer Maakhir lagu kalifay dagaal oo qolo dhib u geystay laga war helay iney u carrareen Yemen. Go'aankii Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsangeli wuxuu noqday in aan shacabka gudaha degan aan waxba loo dhimin laakiin dembiilayaashaa Yemen lagaga daba tago oo ciidan badda laga gudbiyo. Suldan Maxamuud Cali ayaa 1854 markuu Speke  la kulmayo u gudbiyey cabasho diblamaasiyadeed oo ah fara gelintii qaawan ee Ingiriisku doonyaha Warsangeli askartooda Yemen ku geeyeen ay kula wareegeen, joojinta iyo ishortaaga ay Ingriisku ku sameeyaan ciidamada Warsangeli oo doonyaha ku gudba iyo xidhiidhkii military iyo maamul oo ay la lahaayeen Yemen soo fara gelintooda iyo wiiqida, Ingiriisku sababayo, awoodii Warsangeligu ku lahaayeen xagga badda oo aan Soomaali oo dhami gaari jirin. Speke mar uu taa ka hadlayo wuxuu yiri "The Warsingali complained to me sadly of their decline in power since the English had interfered in their fights with the Habr Teljala, which took place near Aden about seven years ago, and had deprived them of their vessels for creating a disturbance, which interfered with the ordinary routine of traffic. They said that on that occasion they had not only beaten the Habr Teljala, but had seized one of their vessels; and that prior to this rupture they had enjoyed paramount superiority over all the tribes of the Somali; but now that they were forbidden to transport soldiers or make reprisals on the sea, every tribe was on an equality with them." Speke, 1854. Markaa Warsangeli doonyaha ciidanka ku guri jiray oo Yemen ka soo dagaalami jiray, si ay gacanta ugu soo dhigaan dembiilayaasha halkaa u baxsaday, Soomaalida kale dhexdooday isku mashquulsanaayeen iney is dilaan ama geel kala dhacaan.

Waxa kaloo ku cad heshiiskaa Warsangeli in uu yahay mid laba maamul wada galeen, halka heshiisyada kale xitaa aanu jirin mid Sultan la aqoonsan yahay saxiixay ee dad la isku keenay oo loo sheegay in Boqortooyada Ingiriisigu u talin doonto maanta laga bilaabo ay saxiixeen.

Dhismaha sawirkan hoose waa magaala xeebeedka Laas Qoray. Dabaqyadan aad arragto waxay ka mid yihiin dhismayaasha taariikhiga ah. Maamulka Saldanada Maakhir, halka dawladaha adduunku leeyihiin "Villa Somalia" iyo "White house", xilligaa waxa "Guriga Cad" ee Warsangeli loo yaqaaney SHAACA. Magaca SHAACA ee goobta gudoonka ka dhacayo loo yaqaaney waxay ku tusinaysaa deganaanta maamulka Ardaaga Odayaasha Warsagengeli iyo gudoonkooda. Waxay muujineysaa in Reer Maakhir ka gudbeen xilli ay geed hoos fariistaan oo wada-tashigooda ku qabsadaan oo gaadheen iney dhistaan dabaqyo ay arrimahooda kaga wada hadlaan oo uu maamulkoodu ka soo baxayo sida "Guriga Cad" iyo "Villa Somalia."  Halka Soomaaliya guriga looga taliyaa, waa "VILLA SOMALIA", xambaarsan yahay macne guumeysi Talyaani muujinaya kan Reer Maakhir looga talin jiray wuxuu xambaarsanaa bandiirad xornimo iyo gumeysi la'aan ku saleysan macne qoto dheer iyo ujeedo culus oo ah nuurkii caddaalada iyo golahay sinaantu ka soo shaaceysey ama iftiimeysey. Sidaasaa Saldanada Maakhir goobta Odayaasha Ardaaga Warsangeli iyo Gudoonkoodu talada ku goyn jireen loogu bixiyey "SHAACA" oo ah "Guriga Cad" ee Maakhir.

Shaaca Laasqoray  Dabaqyadii Laas Qoray 

Waraaqihii ay Isweedaarsadeen Garaad Cali Shire iyo Ingriiska 1902

Labadan Warqadood waxa qoray Garaad Cali Shire  oo aabe u ahaa Allah ha u naxariistee dhamaantoodba   Garaad Maxamuud Garaad Cali Shire, isaga oo ka hadlayey  labo arrimood oo Xiligaa taagnaa .

Arninta Kowaad ayaa waxay  ahayd in Beesha Warsangeli  xaq u leeyihiin in Dal kasta oo hoos yimaada Boqortooyada  Ingiriiska sida Hindiya in ay hub ku dhex qaataan sababtoo ah heshiiska labada dawladood kla saxiixdeen ayaa sidan qoraayey

Arinta labaad waxay cadaynaysaa in Ingiriiska ka hor Dekeda Berbera ay hoos iman jirtay saldanada Lasqorey. Waxaadna warqada ku arkaysaa Caaqilada degaanadaas Gobolada waqooyi galbeed oo saldanadu  Gawaari u gaday Yamen 100 Sano ka hor.

Saldanada Warsangeli ayaa wefti u dirtay dalka Yamen Sanadkii 1902, waxaana weftigaas hogaaminayey  Maxamuud Cabdalle Maxamuud Cali Garaad oo siday ama waday fariin ka timid saldanada o sidan sidan u qornayd “

Warqadan Waxaa laga soo diray Bandar Laasqoray Tarriikhdo markay ahayd  4 bishii Dulqicda 1) Sanadkii 1319 Hijriga (2)

Ku socotta Waaliga Cadan Salaan kal gacal  iyo saaxiibtinimo  marka hore  Ilaahay ha daayee ha una miciino dunida Islaamka Aamiin

Tan labaad dhinacayga waxaa ka soo socdaalay walaalkeen Maxamuud Cabdalle Maxamuud Cali Garaad(3) ninkaa waa   inaad amaankiisa ilaalisaan oo  si wanaagsan u soo dhaweysaan siduu dhaqanku ahaan jiray, hubna ayuu wataa, waxaa noo dhaqan ah inaannu hubka ku dhex qaadannu dhulka uu Ingeriisku xukumo idinkuu ku mahadsan  oo heshiis kala saxiixanay

Ninkani  waa walaalkay wixii kalena isaga ayaa  idiin sheegi doona oo idiin faahfaahin doona  oo ku saabsan dublimaasiyadda .

Nabad ku waara

Saxiixay

78

garaadka

Tan labaad  waxaan doonayaa  fadlan intaa  ka bacdi  in aad  doon soo saartid, waxay lacag u baahanyehiina  aad  siisid, Caaqilada ka yimid Berberana  aad gaadhi saartid nooliligana ka bixisid, annaga iyo dawladda Ingeriiska saaxiibtinimo wayn baa naga dhexaysa, siduu dhaqanku ahaan jiray ula dhaqma .

Waxaana idiin imanaysa intaa ka dib  Doon  la yiraahdo Nicmo Mistahal oo  uu naakhudi ka yahay Xaaji Axmed, laba nin oo Odayaal ah baa la socda oo annaga ah , u ugolaada inay dalka soo galaan (4), markaa labadaa oday u dir Berbera iyo gaadhigaba , Arrintuna Cadan  bay muhiim u tahay,  Xoolo badan oo xagayaga ka imanaya  ayaa dalkiina ku soo jeeda, haddii kale ganacsiga dalkiina ayey saamayneesa, oo ah canshuurta aad ka helaysaan xoolahayga ayaan  meel kale la aadaynaa.

Ilaahay baan ku xusuusinayaa inaad ula dhaqantid si wanaagsan, wixii fahfaahin ah iyagaa idiin sheegi doona, Allah ha idin garab galo.

Waad salaamntihiin

 ( Shaabadda markay Cadan warqaddo gaadhtay )

Xafiiska deganaashaha

Cadan

27 April 1908

 

 

Fahfaahin  :

1.       Suldaan Cali (Shire) Maxamed ( Cawl ) Maxamuud waa suldaankii 24aad ee Beesha  Warsangeli Suldaan Maxamuud Cali shire aabihiis, 3 Suldaanna baa ka dambayey .

2.       18 April 1908

3.       Nuur Cawl , waayo Cawl waa naanays  magiciiso waa Maxamed

4.       Magaalda Cadan

Xeebaha Soomaaliya laga soo bilaabo Bariga ilaa iyo Maydh ayaa loo yaqaanay guud ahaan magaca Maakhir.

 

maakhir

laasmaakhir

laasmaakhir2

Maanta ayaa Isaqland iyo Hargeysa rabtaa, wax boqortooyadaa Ingiriisku aaney isku dayin, iney Maakhir ka sameeyaan. Waxay Isaqland rabaan iney caada-qaatayaal shilimaad Hargeysa ka soo baryey oo metelaya soo geliyaan dhulka Maakhir. Lagama yeeli doono taa. 

Shaaca Laasqoray

Calmadow Puntland

Dhulbeereedka Buuraha Calmadow

Dhulka Maakhir Waa Puntland, Dadka Reer Maakhir Waa Reer Puntland, Dalku Waa Wada Puntland.

Calamadow Maakhir Makhir Puntland Somalia

 

Calmadow Maakhir Makhir Puntland

Dhul Beereedka Buuraha Calmadow

Wax kasta ayaa ka baxa buuraha Calmadow oo biyuhu durduraan. Dhamaaan beeraha biya qulqulayaa lagu waraabiyaa; qalab casriya oo wax lagu qodo dadku ma heystaan. Xitaa siligyo ka celiya daayeerka iyo xayawaanka kale ee geedaha baabi'iyaa kuma wareegsana beerahaas. Ood geedaha laga soo jaray oo aan wax badan celin karin, oo hadba baaba'ada, ayaa badanaa ku wareegsan.

Nasiib darro khudaarta dhibkaa iyo dayacaa  loo maro beeritaankeeda, wado xuma darteed, waa adag tahay in marka la soo gooyo si sahlan loo gaadhsiiyo magaalooyinka. Beeraleydu waxay sheegaan iney dameero iyo gawaadhi yaryar oo keliyii ay gaadhi karaan dhul beereedka. Maadaama kuwaasi aanay waxba qaadi karin badanaa waxa dhacda in khudaarta noocyadeed kala duwani halkaa ku qurunto iyadoo dad fogaasha yar u jiraa baahi u qabaan.

Horumarka Soomaaliyeed kuwa ka shaqeynayaa waa iney dhul beeraadka Calmadow qalab, tababar beereed iyo wado la gaadhaan si ummada Soomaaliyeed uga faa'ideysato dhulkeeda. Dad badan ayaa rumeysan in meesha keliya oo Soomaaliya wax laga beeri karaa tahay dhulka webiyada ee Koonfurta. Gobolka Sanaag dhul beereedkiisa caalamka iyo dawladihii Soomaaliyeed waa dayaceen. Kuwa Soomaaliya mashaariicda ka dhigtaa waxaad moodaa in aaney jecleyn in mashruucyada Soomaalida waxa weyn u taraya, sida horumarinta beeraha,  aaney muhiimad siin. Waxa la gaadhay xilligii beeraleyda Calmadow wax loo qaban lahaa sida in wado loo furo, qalab loo geeyo iyo in shaqaalaha beeraha loo tababaro.

 

--------------------------DHAMAAD--------------------------

Si aad isu barbardhigtaan HESHIISKA WARSANGELI EE aad moodo in looyaro laba dawladood metelayaa wada gelayaan ayaan kuwa qabaa'ilka kalena halkan idiinku soo qoraynaa:

 

 Agreement between the Gadabursi & The British
(December 11, 1884)


We, the undersigned Elders of the Gadabursi tribe, are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the British Government for the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of order, and other good and sufficient reasons.

Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-

 
ART. I. The Gababursi tribe do hereby declare that they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, any portion of the territory presently inhabited by them, or being under their control.


ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade at all ports and places within the territories of the Gadabursi tribe

ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting the territories of the Gadabursi tribe shall enjoy perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe
………… .
In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honourable bond, Jama Roblay, ……..

and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter
on behalf of the British Government, do each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix their signatures, marks, and seals, at Zaila, on the 11th day of

December, 1884, corresponding with the 25th Safar.
F. M. Hunter
(the marks of Elders named.)
Agreement with the Gadabursi, ZAILA, Dec. 11, 1884 -
____________ _________ _________ _________ _________

Agreement between the Eesa & The British
(December 31, 1884)


We, the undersigned Elders of the Eesa tribe, are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the British Government for the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of order, and other good and sufficient reasons.

Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-

ART. I. The Eesa tribe do hereby declare that they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, any portion of the territory presently inhabited by them, or being under their control.
ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade at all ports and places within the territories of the Eesa tribe

ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting the territories of the Eesa tribe shall enjoy perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe
…….
In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honourable bond,

Ali Geridone, ………

and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix their signatures, marks, and seals, at Zaila, on the 31st day of December, 1884, corresponding with the 13th Rabu-al-Awal, 1302
F. M. Hunter
Agreement with the Eesa Somal, ZAILA, Dec. 31, 1884 –
____________ _________ _________ _________ _________

Agreement between The Habr Toljaala & The British
(December 26, 1884)


We, the undersigned Elders of the Habr Toljaala tribe, are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the British Government for the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of order, and other good and sufficient reasons.

Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-


ART. I. The Habr Toljaala tribe declare that they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, any portion of the territory presently inhabited by them, or being under their control.

ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade at all ports and places within the territories of the Habr Toljaala, and the tribe is bound to render assistance to any vessel,
whether British or belonging to any other nation, that may be wrecked on the above-mentioned shores, and to protect the crew, the passengers, and cargo of such vessels, giving speedy intimation to the Resident at Aden of the circumstances, for which act of friendship and good-will a suitable reward will be given by the
British Government.
ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting the territories of the Habr Toljaala shall enjoy perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
honourable bond, Dirir Shaikh Don, ….

[INSERT THE NAMES OF THE ELDERS HERE]…..;

and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, Assistant Political Resident, the
former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix their signatures, marks, and seals, at Aden, on the
26th day of December, 1884, corresponding with the 9th of Rabu-al-Awal, 1302

F. M. Hunter
(the marks of Elders named.)

Agreement with Habr Toljaala, Aden, December 26,1884
____________ _________ _________ _________ _________

Agreement between The Habr Gerhajis & The British
(January 13, 1885)


We, the undersigned Elders of the Habr Gerhajis tribe, are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the British Government for the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of order, and other good and sufficient reasons.

Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-


ART. I. The Habr Gerhajis tribe do hereby declare that they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, any portion of the territory presently inhabited by them, or being under their control.

ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade at all ports and places within the territories of the Habr Gerhajis, and the tribe is bound to render assistance to any vessel,
whether British or belonging to any other nation, that may be wrecked on the above-mentioned shores, and to protect the crew, the passengers, and cargo of such vessels, giving speedy intimation to the Resident at Aden of the circumstances, for which act of friendship and good-will a suitable reward will be given by the British Government.


ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting the territories of the Habra Gerhajis tribe shall enjoy perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe


In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honourable bond, Ahmed Ali, ……..and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix their signatures, marks, and seals, at Aden, on the 13th day of December, 1885, corresponding with the 28th of Rabi-al-Awal, 1302
F. M. Hunter
(Signatures of Elders)

Agreement with Habr Gerhajis, Aden, January 13,1885
____________ _________ _________ _________ _________

Agreement between The Habr-Awal & The British
(July 14, 1884)


WHEREAS the garrisons of His Highness the Khedive are about to be withdrawn from Berbera and Bulhar, and the Somali Coast generally, we, the undersigned Elders of the Habr-Awal tribe, are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the British Government for the
maintenance of our independence, the preservation of order, and other good and sufficient reasons.


Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-


ART. I. The Habr-Awal tribe do hereby declare that they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, any portion of the territory presently inhabited by them, or being under their control.

ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade at the ports of Berbera, Bulhar, and other places in the territories of the Habr-Awal tribe


ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting the territories of the Habr-Awal shall enjoy perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe
……..
In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honourable bond, Abdellah Liban, ……..and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, the officiating Political Resident of Aden, the former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix their signatures, marks, and seals, at Berbera, on the 21st day Ramdhan, 1301, corresponding with the 14th July, 1884F. M. Hunter, Major, Officiating Political Resident, Aden.


Agreement with Habr-Awal, Berbera, July 14, 1884
____________ _________ _________ _________ _________
The conclusion of every agreement, except the WARSANGALI TREATY, indicates that the treaty will be abided by the elders currently signing and ” their heirs and successors ”

 

Halkan ka akhriso go'aamadii ka soo baxay shirkii Warsangeli ee 1992 ee Hadaaftimo

 

Additional information